Jessica Beresford-Webb, Shahid Zaman

CAMDEX-DS-II: The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down Syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities. (Version II) – Assessment 2


Diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer’s disease and AD dementia in people with Down’s Syndrome is a major challenge. The comprehensive Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with DS and Others with Intellectual Disabilities (CAMDEX-DS) has been validated for diagnosing prodromal AD and AD dementia. Here we provide an updated version (CAMDEX-DS-II).



The CAMDEX-DS-II is a standardised structured schedule comprising the assessments necessary for facilitating the diagnosis of dementia in people with Down’s syndrome (a group known to be at particular risk of dementia), as well as others with intellectual disabilities. In order to differentiate decline due to dementia or other mental disorders from pre-existing impairment, particular emphasis has been placed on establishing change from the individual’s best level of functioning. Updated from the original CAMDEX-DS-II, the assessments comprise a structured informant interview to facilitate the systematic collection of information about presenting symptoms and clinical history in order to arrive at a differential diagnosis, and a direct assessment of the patient/participant covering cognitive assessment (CAMCOG-DS-II, providing a reliable way to identify dementia (and to differentiate it from other common disorders). The pack comprises a guidance manual, pictorial booklet, informant interview and CAMCOG-DS neuropsychological test battery. It may be used in community settings by mental health professionals as part of the diagnostic process, or to formalise diagnosis in the context of research.


Senior Editors

–   Jessica Beresford-Webb :  University of Cambridge

–   Shahid Zaman :  University of Cambridge


–   Rosalyn Hithersay : King’s College London

–   Andre Strydom : King’s College London

–   Bessy Benejam : Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau Catalan Down Syndrome Foundation Barcelona

–   Silvia Sacco : Institut Jérôme Lejeune

–   Sandra Loosli : Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich

–   Frode Larsen : Norwegian National Advisor unit on Ageing and Health

–   Eimear Mc Glinchey : Trinity College Dublin

–   Mary Mc Carron : Trinity College Dublin


Publisher: Pavilion Publishing and Media Ltd

Publication Date: October 2021

ISBN: 978-1-914010-80-4


Brief Table of Contents






Description of the CAMDEX-DS-II

The CAMDEX-DS-II Schedule

Section 1: The informant interview

Section 2: Assessment of patient/participant

Guidance for Diagnosis

Section 1: Differential diagnosis

Section 2: Scoring

Section 3: Diagnostic criteria

Guidance for Interviewers

Example answers: Cognitive and functional decline

Example answers: Current mental health


Appendices: The CAMDEX-DS-II Schedule

2.Pictorial material for cognitive examination

3.Informant interview test sheets

4.Assessment of participant (CAMCOG-DS-II)


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